Perhaps everyone knows this, but I didn't: a relator may bring a False Claims Act (FCA) retaliation claim in state court.
Recently, in Driscoll v. Superior Court of Madera County, 2014 WL 333411 (January 30, 2014, Cal. App. 5 Dist.), the Court addressed whether state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over FCA retaliation claims, 31 U.S.C. 3730(h), and the Court found that they do. Regardless of whether concurrent jurisdiction exists, you normally would not expect to see FCA retaliation claims in state court because you would expect a defendant to remove a FCA retaliation claim to federal court under federal question jurisdiction, 28 U.S.C 1331. In Driscoll, however, the defendant brought the FCA retaliation claim against the plaintiffs as a cross claim. The plaintiffs moved to dismiss the FCA retaliation claim brought against them on the grounds that the California state court did not have subject matter jurisdiction, and though they won in the trial court, the appellate court found that the state court had jurisdiction and could proceed with the defendant's FCA retaliation claim. In so ruling, the California 5th District Court of Appeals acknowledged that section 3730(h)(2) provides that "an action under this subsection may be brought in the appropriate district court of the United States" and that section 31 U.S.C. 3732(a) provides further that "Any action under section 3730 may be brought in any judicial district . . . " Yet, the Court noted that the FCA does not "contain an explicit statutory directive ousting state court jurisdiction" and the "FCA's jurisdiction provision does not mention state courts or their jurisdiction." Consequently, asserted the Court, "we presume state courts share concurrent jurisdiction over FCA claims." The Court explained further that in retaliation claims the federal government is not a party nor are such claims brought in the name of the United States. Rather, "retaliation claims are personal to the individual."
Another FCA fun fact.
A. Brian Albritton
February 5, 2014
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